Types of Chainsaws

Hasyour knowledgeabout the category of chainsaw you are applying, which brand it belongs to? If not, then you should know all that figures about that. The chainsaw, which is utilized for cutting woods, in the woods, in cutting off legs is not sane; they are of different types and belong to different brands as well. Nowadays a large variety of chainsaw is available the market and many of us don’t know about them. Which chainsaw is suitable for you depends upon your type of application. It is not possible to cover every type of chainsaws but most of them are listed below.

The most prevalent and mostly used kind of chainsaws is electric chainsaws. They are very beneficial due to their individual properties like less vibration, less price and compactness. Then comes cordless chainsaws  which are light in weight and unobtrusive in all of the chainsaws. This is used for small level cutting like cutting of tree divisions. If you want a chainsaw for your home, then the cord is the finest fit for you.

chainsaw product reviews

Chainsaw product review

Then come gas chainsaws which are mostly used nowadays. It is the most rough form of chainsaw because it is used for tough and rough works. If you are unaware of the type which is suitable for you then a gas chain saw is your choice because it can be used for any type of work either for wood cutting or for household purposes. Gas chain saws are very difficult to lift and are very noisy, so be careful while using them.

After that we talk about professional chainsaws which are used by professionals.view reviews best electric chainsaw . They give maximum performance and can only be operated by professionals as they are difficult to operate and handle. Then come all-round saws which are as good as any other chainsaw, but give less performance as compared to professional chain saws and can be used only for wood cutting.

Last but not the least, consumer chainsaws which are very easy to use and very light weight. They are typically designed for home users and are very easy to operate. At the end, we discuss Tree care saws. As the name suggests they are used only to cut trees and all the tasks related to trees and their branches.

chainsaw products review

Types of Chainsaws

I tried to cover the key types of chainsaws may be, there are extra types existing, however above stated types are those which are majorly used in regular routines. Every single character has its own positives and negatives and you can’t pronounce that which one is superior.It entirely depends upon your use and the kind of work you are performing.Before making use of chains saws it is best drill to deliver data about the types of it so that you can choose the appropriate one for you. For the achievable performance of saws it is vital that you choose the right one for you.Chainsaws manufacturers offer optimum goods for every application, but only if you select one which works impeccably for you and your applications.

Use bike racks perfect

If you like to bike, but you drive a truck, four-wheel-drive, giay bong da hatchback, or sports car, you may have found it tough to carry cycles on or in your vehicle.

Traditional bike racks generally don’t adapt well to features such as rear-mounted spare tires, gutterless “aerodynamic” car roofs, or fiberglass shells. But several new designs deserve a look. Each holds bikes safely and securely, without straps or hooks, and still lets you open your trunk, rear door, or tailgate.

For each type, we either tried it out loading up bikes and taking to the roador got feedback from experts in the field. All hold any kind of bike. Costs for twobike models range from $40 to $200. Look for these racks in recreational outfitters and cycle shops (for harder-to-find types, we’ve mentioned brand names). Most of them install quickly with simple tools; a few require drilling.

Some racks come with devices to deter thieves, but it’s a good idea to secure all bikes and racks with additional locks. For pickups, a rack in the back. Instead of tossing your bike into the bed of your compact or full-size truck, clamp it to a heavy-duty steel bar-type rack,

bike rack

bike rack

bike rack

To stay put, some designs rely solely on pressure against the sides of the truck (be careful: too much pressure may bow the walls). Others attach to clamps you anchor to the walls some with screws.

Bikes can lock to the rack, but only some racks lock to the truck. Expect to pay $90 to $100 for a two-bike rack, $20 to $30 each for additional bike holders.

For four-wheel-drives, rack hangs on the spare. Southern California architect Tom Olivor came up with the rack shown at right for his four-wheel-drive. Two slightly angled “arms” attach to the rim of the rear-mounted spare tire.

To anchor the foot-long metal arms, Olivor used the two extra holes in the spare’s rim. (Most rims have five holes, but only three are used to mount the spare.) A bolt in one end of each rubber-coated arm slips through a hole, then through the tire mount, fastening with a lug nut. (With some four-wheel-drives, you may have to drill 1/2-inch holes in the mount to accommodate the extra bolts.)

bike rack 1

bike rack 1

bike rack 1

Attach arms as high as possible so that bikes have adequate clearance should you drive across a deep gutter or rut, or up a steep driveway. And remember that the arms are only as strong as the tire mount, something to consider if you plan to carry a pair of heavy bikes across rutted roads. For best security, thread a cable lock (not included) through the bike frames and tire mount. When not using the arms, you can stow them in your car.

To order by mail, send $44.50 ($46.50 in California) to 5th Wheel BikeRack, 727 Via Otono, San Clemente, Calif. 92672. For vehicles with a hitch. This design slips securely into a standard, square-type trailer hitch. An adapter for lighterweight hitches is also available,

The hefty steel unit (the two-bike model weighs 14 pounds) has a 38-inch-tall main column topped by a crossbar, with cushioned, foot-long arms for bike racks, keeping it and bikes far away from your car’s paint job. (For trucks, slide the entire unit out to open the tailgate.)

The Bike Slider costs about $130 for the two-bike model, $240 for one that holds four. For distributor, call (800) 822-7537 in California, (800) 522-7537 elsewhere.

For “aerodynamic” cars. Good news if you want a multipurpose modular rack but don’t have the rain gutters on your rooftop to anchor it: you can use clips that hook around the lip of the door frame. The rack attaches to clips; different clips match the make and model of your car. The rack and four clips sell for about $125; bike mounts are $45 to $75 extra.

For fiberglass shells. Since shells often lack gutters or openings on which to hook clips for modular racks, try artificial gutters-brackets made of plastic-coated aluminum or steel. The brackets bolt in place on the shell’s sides or top, Inside, washers (provided) should prevent leaks. A standard modular rack slips into the brackets. This means you can use the same rack on your shell as you do on your rain gutter equipped car.

As with the four-wheel-drive system, artificial gutters are only as strong as the material to which they’re bolted. Rigid fiberglass shells work well, but avoid flimsier fiberglass or tin shells. A set of four, enough for one rack, is about $35. You usually have to buy the same brand as your rack.

view more information www.d3-racing.com in new article

What’s New, May 2010

The Best Longboard 61 ($399) and Shortboard 49 ($349) from E-mu Systems (emu.com) are 61- or 49-note keyboards offering world-class sounds, 128-voice polyphony, onboard effects, and a USB/MIDI controller with aftertouch in one instrument. Sounds include grand pianos, electric pianos, B3s, clavinets, Solina/Moog/OB/Prophet/Juno/TB synth leads and basses, and General MIDI patches. Six controller knobs, pitch and mod wheels, a controller pedal, a footswitch, and octave-transpose buttons provide live control of filters, LFOs, and amplifiers. The units can be powered via USB, external DC, or onboard batteries, and both include E-mu’s new Pipeline wireless stereo audio system.

Camel Audio Alchemy Player

Want the sounds of Alchemy, but don’t need to create your own presets? Alchemy Player (Mac/Win, $59) from Camel Audio is free with the purchase of any Alchemy soundbank, which turns any bank into a standalone instrument. Two new soundbanks–Cinematic and Dance & Trance–expand the company’s current offerings to seven, including sounds from Biolabs, BigTone, and Junkie XL. Alchemy Player has 150 presets and 360MB of samples from the full factory library, including evolving soundscapes, lush pads, and pulsing arpeggios, with additive, spectral, granular, sampling and VA synthesis, as well as 16 performance controls for real-time tweaking and automation. Upgrading to the full version of Alchemy (with 600 presets and 3GB of samples) is $199.

long board

Tannoy Reveal Monitors

Tannoy introduces new versions of its Reveal studio near-field monitors, slated to ship this month. The Reveal 501a ($249 MSRP), the Reveal 601a ($349 MSRP), and the passive Reveal 601p ($179 MSRP) are all compact front-ported designs featuring a wideband tweeter that extends response to 30kHz and a shaped front baffle to minimize diffraction. The 501a has an integrated 60-watt amplifier and a 5-inch woofer for response down to 64Hz; the 601a pairs a 6.5-inch woofer with 90W of amplification for response down to 60Hz. Both have balanced XLR and unbalanced inputs, and rear-mounted volume controls. For users who prefer their own amplifiers, the 601p has a 6.5-inch woofer with the same 1-inch soft-dome tweeter for a response of 63Hz to 30kHz.

Alesis MultiMix 6 USB

Designed for the desktop recording environment, the Alesis MultiMix 6 USB ($99) is a compact 6-channel mixer that outputs line-level analog audio, as well as stereo 16-bit, 44.1kHz digital audio over USB for simple connection to any PC or Mac. All six inputs can accept *-inch line signal; channel 1 also has a high-impedance switch for connecting a guitar or bass directly, and channels 1 and 2 have XLR mic inputs with switchable phantom power. The mic inputs also feature switchable highpass filtering at 75Hz to eliminate low-frequency rumble, and handling and wind noise. Each channel has an independent pan control, and channels 1 through 4 provide high- and low-shelving EQs. Channels 1 and 2 have independent gain trims, while channels 3/4 and 5/6 are configured as stereo pairs at the level and pan controls. A stereo headphone output is also standard.

Rain Ion Studio and LiveBook Studio

Optimized for rigorous audio and/or video production are the rackmount Ion Studio (from $1,899) and the LiveBook Studio (from $2,499) laptops–two high-performance PCs from Rain Computers . Offered with three processor choices (up to 2GHz Intel “Clarksfield” Core i7 quad-core), a 500GB hard drive, and up to 8GB of RAM, LiveBook Studio also features a 15.4-inch WXGA HD widescreen display, three FireWire ports, three USB 2 ports, and a PCI Express cardslot. Ion Studio runs on four 2.8GHz or 3.4GHz AMD Phenom II quad-core CPUs, up to 16GB of RAM, and up 8TB of disk storage, and it comes with six USB ports; up to five FireWire ports; five PCIe slots; two PCI-X (legacy) slots; and ATI Radeon HD 4200 or HD 4650, or Nvidia Quadro FX 1700 graphics. Ion Studio options are numerous, ranging from Blu-ray drives to solid-state drives (SSD).

long board

Native Instruments Alicia’s Keys

Now shipping from Native Instruments is Alicia’s Keys (Mac/Win, $119), a software re-creation of the Grammy-winning artist’s own custom Yamaha C3 Neo grand piano in the Kontakt 4 sampler platform. Recorded in Keys’ personal studio by her engineer, Ann Mincieli, and sampling expert Thomas Scarbee using high-end studio gear and vintage mics, the result is 17GB of high-resolution samples with 12 discrete velocity layers per note, and sophisticated emulation of crucial sonic aspects such as key release, sustain pedal functionality, and sympathetic resonance. The software can be used with the included free Kontakt Player or it can be loaded into the full-featured pro Kontakt 4 sampler for in-depth sound editing.

ADAM AX Series Monitors

Boasting redesigned cabinets, new woofers and amps, and the X-ART ribbon tweeter, these four new AX Series monitors from ADAM comprise the ultracompact A3X (4.5-inch LF driver, 25W x2; $299); the high-performance A5X (5.5-inch mid/woofer, 50W x2; $499); the 7X (7-inch mid/woofer, 50W/100W; $599); and the A8X systems (8.5-inch mid/woofer, 50W/150W; $899). AX Series’ woofers feature larger voice-coils and more power for greater linear excursion and higher output. All models have beveled upper corners to minimize reflections and front porting.

JZ Vintage V67

JZ Microphones releases the second in its Vintage Series of mics that emulate the tone of classic models. Modeled to sound like a Neumann U67, the new V67 ($1,999) has a single cardioid pickup pattern and uses transistors instead of tubes so no external power supply is required. Like its sibling V47 model unveiled earlier this year, the V67 has a compact flask-shaped body that allows for tight placements, and an internal shock-mounting system protects its large, double-diaphragm, gold-sputtered condenser capsule. The V67 also features a rotational swivel mount with nearly 360 degrees of rotation. Specs include a maximum sound pressure level handling of 134dB and a low self-noise of 6dBA.

Sonivox Eighty-Eight

Conceived and designed as an exceptional virtual embodiment of a Steinway CD 327 grand is the Eighty Eight Grand Piano (Mac/Win, $199) virtual instrument from Sonivox. Recorded using high-end A/D converters and preamps, the plug-in features more than 11GB of content with 35 piano and pad presets; onboard EQ, reverb and limiting; up to 16 velocity layers per key; and an easy split editor for setting pad and combination instrument ranges. The instrument can be used standalone or with VST, RTAS, or AU hosts.

Korg MR-2 Handheld DSD Recorder Korg (korg.com) expands its ultrahigh-fidelity, 2.8MHz sampling rate DSD recorder line with the MR-2 (price TBA), a compact unit with built-in X/Y stereo condenser microphones. An additional jack enables connection to a favorite external mic. The pocket-sized MR-2 writes data directly to removeable SD/SDHC cards (up to 32GB), or data can be transferred to computer via the onboard USB 2 port. Using the included AudioGate software, original DSD recording can be repurposed into nearly any audio format with minimal fidelity loss. For job-specific recording, the MR-2 can also record in any of the popular multi-bit formats, from MP2 and MP3 up to 24-bit/192kHz. The MR-2 ships this summer. Ce

Sound Advice

Producer Loops Trance Elevation Volume 2

Trance Elevation Volume 2 ($45.86, download) is the second in Producer Loops’ series of trance-oriented sample collections. The library, which totals 5GB across all formats, comprises 10 construction kits provided as 24-bit, 44.1kHz Acidized WAV, REX, Apple Loops, and Propellerhead Reason ReFill files. Dry and wet versions, along with unlooped clips with long reverb or delay tails, are provided for many of the loops. Synth leads and pads are rendered in up-, down-, and flat-filter versions for constructing build, roll, and decay parts. Users can also incorporate their own virtual instruments using the included MIDI files for many of the lead, pad, and bass parts (see Web Clip 1). Trance Elevation Volume 2 producer Jonathan Blakoe of Static Blue has remixed for the likes of Armin Van Buuren, Sunny Lax, and Adam Szabo. The construction kits of 30 to 50 loops are all 138bpm in C, Bb, Eb, Ab, Gb, or D. They include a demo mix along with bass, drum mixes and parts, straight and arpeggiated leads, and effects.

Big Fish Audio Nashville Sessions

Looking for authentic Country sounds? Big Fish Audio Nashville Sessions ($99.95, DVD) has you covered. The library of 24-bit, 44.1kHz WAV and REX files includes 22 construction kits, along with 148 extra loops, ranging from 85bpm to 150bpm in keys C, G, D, A, and E–7.5GB for all formats. A typical kit contains a preview and from 40 to 60 instrument loops featuring guitar (acoustic, rhythm, lead, and pedal steel), drums, bass, piano, mandolin, and fiddle (see Web Clip 2). Nashville Sessions was written and produced by Steve Sechi, Eric Masse, and Jesse Terry, and features experienced session players Steve Sinatra (drums), Adam Popick (bass), Charlie Hutto (guitars), Jonathan Lawson (mandolin and fiddle), and Tom Camp (pedal steel and piano).

Impact Soundworks Shreddage

Impact Soundworks developed its new electric-guitar library to deliver convincing rock and metal rhythm-guitar parts without resorting to loops, keyswitches, or complicated MIDI controls. Shreddage ($49, download for Native Instruments Kontakt 2 or later) was recorded in 24-bit/44.1kHz resolution through an Avalon DI box from a classic metal guitar played by Sixto Sounds’ Juan Medrano. The library captures a variety of articulations: power chords, open sustains, mutes (palm, fast, half, and power-chord), squeals, chokes, scrapes, slides, squeaks, and fret noise. Most instruments feature up and down strikes and eight round-robin samples to mitigate the machine-gun effect. In addition to individual instruments for the various articulations, you’ll find several multis designed for load-and-play double-tracked performance. For example, one setup puts power chords under your left hand and open sustains under your right, with velocity transitioning from mutes to full sustain (see Web Clip 3). Double-track instruments are routed to two Kontakt outputs for independent amping, and presets for popular amp/cabinet simulators are included.

Wave Alchemy Drum Tools 01

Whether you’re building drum tracks from the ground up or engaging in a little creative drum replacement, Drum Tools 01 (about $60, download) from Wave Alchemy might have just the sounds you’re looking for. This 24- and 16-bit, 44.1kHz techno- and house-oriented sample library delivers 1,950 hand-crafted electronic drum sounds culled from a variety of drum machines, synths, field recordings, and recorded acoustic drum and percussion instruments (see Web Clip 4). Many of the sounds are layered and processed. Electronic sources include modern units such as the Future Retro XS, Nord Lead 3, and Jomox Xbase 999, and vintage analog gear such as the ARP Odyssey, Roland TB and TR Series, and Korg MS-20. Outboard gear used in processing the samples includes the Thermionic Culture Vulture, various Moog filters and envelopes, and SSL E Series EQ and compression. Drum Tools 01 includes patches for most popular samplers and an Ableton Live 8 Pack.

George Petersen and Len Sasso

Second sight

An ingenious night-vision system for cars illuminates the scene beyond the sweep of your headlights.

You don’t want to think about what’s out there beyond the reach of your headlights on a dark road. The occasional deer, for instance, neglecting to wear the mandatory reflective garb of today’s cyclist or jogger, is dead meat for a car traveling 60 mph. At that speed, the minimum braking distance is long gone by the time a driver can react to an animal’s sudden appearance in low-beam headlights.

But next year, using one of the more ingenious adaptations of Vietnam-era military technology ever to trickle down to civilian use, Cadillac hopes to change all that.

Night Vision

Night Vision

In a prototype model-year-2000 Cadillac DeVille, a head-up display floats a ghostly image in the air ahead of the windshield, just below the normal line of sight. The image is generated by heat in the infrared range, at wavelengths longer than the visible light spectrum. Though the system detects heat over a broad range of radiation, it is particularly sensitive to the heat range of warm-blooded mammals. And that’s why the engineers walking around in the parking lot show up white against the dark, cool sky as they stand on a light-gray sea of asphalt slowly losing ergs accumulated earlier, in the heat of the midday sun.

It’s an eerie view of the world, a new way of seeing things, and it takes some getting used to. Reflected light – everything from early acetylene lanterns and electric bulbs to today’s high-intensity discharge lamps – has held sway as the proper way for drivers to see the road ahead for nearly a hundred years. This new infrared landscape, however, is generated by the heat of objects that populate it, not by what pops up in a sweeping beam of light. Trees, people, and most objects are clearly visible on the road and off through the dark, while the warmed pavement can be seen far beyond the reach of any conventional headlight system until the road disappears over the crest of a hill ahead.

Night Vision

Night Vision

Infrared vision gained the attention of the U.S. military in Vietnam. During that conflict, nighttime helicopter maneuvers and infrared’s ability to see through jungle foliage gave the technology an impact somewhat akin to the revolutionary introduction of radar to sea maneuvers in World War II. Early infrared systems used supercooled detectors that consumed liquid nitrogen to maintain an operating temperature of about minus 200 [degrees] C, which proved bulky and expensive, however.

That began to change by the mid-1970s, when work toward developing an uncooled system commenced at Texas Instruments. The system wasn’t quite as sensitive as the cooled detectors, but it promised light weight and, ultimately, low cost.

The uncooled detectors use a specialized dielectric capacitor that generates a spike of voltage when activated by infrared light. The detector is sensitive to about 0. 1 [degrees] C – enough so that a hand rested against a wall leaves a visible heat print. A tiny array of the capacitors – about an inch square – is scanned by a rapidly rotating disc to generate an image.

The first military devices, including gunsights and security cameras, began to emerge in the late 1980s. Raytheon Corp. acquired the technology from Texas Instruments and Hughes Industrial Electronics, and continued to commercialize the system, introducing cameras for police squad cars and marine applications.

The technology’s adaptation for on-road use likewise began in the military. The system is currently found on military Humvees and has even been tested on an off-road race truck driven in races at the Baja peninsula in Mexico. It will be at least a year before carmakers other than Cadillac can use the Raytheon technology in their cars and trucks.

The installation of this system on the Cadillac DeVille includes a camera hiding behind the grille and focused on the road ahead. The infrared images from the camera are projected to the driver’s vision via a device at the top of the instrument panel. Using a small panel on the dashboard, the driver can set the image’s intensity, adjust its position, and turn it off when it is unwanted.

“It’s a driving aid. The idea is that you refer to it occasionally, when you need it,” says Raytheon engineer Richard Seolane, who is working on the system for Cadillac.

OK. But the image is hypnotic. The head-up display focuses about 7 feet away, far enough so that the night-vision image stays in focus along with the normal view through the windshield. The image is sized to closely duplicate the usual perspective of oncoming cars, to show the road ahead with relatively little distortion. When you are blinded by oncoming headlights (which, surprisingly, are relatively cool, and hence barely visible when viewed with the night-vision system), you get a clear view in the screen.

It works, with some quirks. When you look straight ahead, the view of the road is loaded with sharp detail, including the center line, which has a different heat content from the pavement. On tight curves, however, the camera presents a disconcerting blur as it pans the outside edge of the road.

After a few miles, the value of the system becomes apparent – it’s sort of like a rear-view mirror, only facing forward, warning you of something that wouldn’t be visible without it. Neat.

During a demonstration, a deer appeared at the edge of a nearby field, but stayed away from the road. So a couple of volunteers stood alongside a car on the shoulder and feigned changing a tire. The impact was dramatic: Although the bystanders were hidden by the glare of the parked cat’s headlights until we approached to within 50 feet or so, they were clearly visible for a quarter-mile away with the night-vision system.

The system also works in light fog and dust, and will reveal a person camouflaged by foliage alongside your driveway. Proving that there is more out there in the dark than usually meets the eye.

PC Magazine Labs report Gigabit Ethernet adapters

PC Magazine Labs puts four Gigabit Ethernet adapters to the test, pushing them to their very maximum, While some cards based on the same chip work fine, the story isn’t the same for all the adapters we tested,

At a glance

* Although Gigabit Ethernet adapters are able to maintain maximum throughput as the number of clients rises, the response time experienced by each client will degrade.

* A multiprocessor server is needed to get the most out of these cards due to the amount of processing at full speed.

* The results shown in our tests are a maximum. Under more realistic circumstances you’ll see less throughput.

AGW2 adapters powerkits product series main

Hp adapters


WHILE THE WIRE SPEED OF GbE is 1GBit/s, you aren’t going to get that level of throughput from one single server. Our tests are designed to show the differences in a single system component rather than give an idea of overall system performance. However, they also do this by using standard networking protocols, rather than an artificial packet generator.

The Intel, IBM and Compaq cards are all based on the Intel 82542 and use functionally identical drivers, They produce results within the level of experimental error of our benchmarks and so for the sake of clarity we’ve chosen to represent them with a single set of results. These cards significantly outperformed the 3Com card by a factor of almost 2:1. The average response time for the Intel-based cards was also lower than the 3Com card. We were able to repeat these results and we checked the test network configuration to ensure that there was a full duplex connection between the NIC and the switch. A new revision of 3Com’s ASIC is said to resolve this problem.

Labs setup

The adapters were tested using the PC Magazine test network. The test bed server was a Compaq ProLiant 8500R server with eight Pentium III Xeon 550MHz, 1MB Level 2 cache processors and 4GB RAM. The cards were installed in the ProLiant 8500R’s 64-bit, 66MHz PCI slot and connected to the GbE module in the Hewlett-Packard ProCurve switch. Each of the 48 clients had a 100Mbit/s half-duplex connection to the switch. The clients were connected to the server using Windows networking over TCP/IP. The server was configured to use workgroup-level security.

Ziff-Davis NetBench 6.0 was used to test performance. A test suite was created which used the NIC test mix in NetBench. This creates a single file on the server which all clients access by requesting small sections of the file at random. We used a 96MB file size with a 64KB request size, the largest request size NetBench 6.0 allows. The server’s large memory allowed this file to be entirely cached, preventing disk reads from affecting the network throughput.

hp adapters

Hp adapters

Labs notes

FOR THE INTEL-BASED CARDS, THE DRIVER SUITE IS installed in one go. 3Com’s installation is in two halves: the card driver is installed first, and after a reboot the DynamicAccess installation routine starts. We chose not to install DynamicAccess, since in our single-NIC test setup it wouldn’t have provided any benefit and may have affected throughput.

The driver for the Intel-based cards allows tuning of operational parameters, such as the number of buffers used and jumbo frame support. By contrast, the basic 3Com driver only allows you to enable or disable link negotiation and flow control for transmit and receive. Diagnostics are also available in both drivers, although the 3Com version requires you to reboot the server in order to unbind the driver from any protocols in use.

We noticed during testing that processor eight–the highest order processor–was typically at over 70 per cent utilisation when maximum performance was achieved. This processor was handling interrupts from the adapter, as well as executing the code for the TCP/IP protocol and SMB server. Only one other processor showed any load at all, which means that to get the throughput we measured while running applications you’ll need a multiprocessor server. This could be as few as two processors, depending on the application in question, but you’re going to need the best part of one processor just to handle the network traffic. Should your application be a database server requiring significant processing power of its own, you may need even more processors to cope with this.

Bald tyres and light bulbs: the economy

THIS past year the treasury secretary, Nicholas Brady, has had a folksy piece of wisdom to calm fears about the American economy. It is that the economy is bound to recover, because America’s balding tyres need replacing, and the country’s blown light-bulbs need changing. Several senior people in the administration have long thought that White House complacency about the economy has been the biggest threat to George Bush’s chances in November. After unexpectedly bad unemployment figures earlier this month, these people are more disturbed than ever.

Quiet desperation turned frantic last autumn, when Mr Bush’s chief economic adviser, Michael Boskin, realised the economy would deliver little growth in the last quarter of that year and little, perhaps, even in the first quarter of 1992. Mr Bush’s closest aides, on the other hand, chose to present him with a glossy assessment of the prospects for recovery. John Sununu, the then White House chief of staff, would not even grant Mr Boskin an audience with the president. Mr Boskin threatened to resign, and was shown in the same morning.

Light Bulbs 1

Light Bulbs 1

Light Bulbs

The flurry of concern that followed led to the fiscal package that Mr Bush presented to Congress in January.The president set a March 20th deadline for Congress to pass the “growth” package, a deadline that Congress predictably let slip.

Since then, Mr Boskin is known to have been upset that the White House has not pushed harder for the package, or at least blamed Congress louder for its demise. The news that the unemployment rate had jumped from 7.5% in May to 7.8% in June may have settled the argument in Mr Boskin’s favour for now. Mr Bush’s men promise henceforth to vaunt the qualities of the president’s proposed budget. This will be hard: the package has no guiding principle, which makes it difficult to sell, and offers no serious prescription for cutting the deficit.



Best Light Bulbs Products

An absence of fiscal policy therefore puts all the more heat on the monetary policy of a beleaguered Federal Reserve. Recently both Mr Brady and Mr Bush have been calling for lower interest rates. The bad news on unemployment gave the Fed its cue to cut the discount rate by half a point. Rates have not been so low since the early 1960s.

In his half-yearly testimony to Congress next week, Alan Greenspan, the Fed’s chairman, will have to explain the worringly slow growth in the money supply, particularly in M2, which in recent months has actually been falling. In the past, the Fed has argued that the singular nature of America’s debt-induced slump has played havoc with money-supply figures, which should therefore not be taken at their face value. Now the Fed is not so sure. Concern over slow monetary growth (more than the unemployment data, which are subject to many quirks) was really why the Fed eased on July 2nd.

With the discount rate at 3%, the Fed can hardly cut much further. As it is, the gap is wide between America’s short-term rates and those of other big economies. Recently Mr Brady said that he was not bothered about the level of the dollar. This is an inane comment, providing just the kind of encouragement that foreigners might want to dump the currency–giving the Fed a reason to resist the lower interest rates that Mr Brady says he wants.

Light bulbs reinvented: switch on OLEDs!

Although they might not have fully recognized it at the time, their invention carried the possibility of transforming display screens and, perhaps more importantly, interior lighting.

But the invention had a significant drawback that was imposed by quantum mechanics. Making these organic molecules emit light requires injecting electrons from electrical contacts on the film surfaces. But because of quantum-mechanical considerations.

Best light bulbs product

Best light bulbs product

light bulbs product

In 1998, my group at Princeton University, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Southern California under the direction of Mark Thompson, found that including a heavy-metal atom such as platinum or iridium in the organic molecule could overcome the quantum-mechanical limitations, allowing for 100 percent of the injected electrons to result in light emission via the process of phosphorescence. organic molecules are capable of both rapid and exceedingly bright phosphorescence.

This new phenomenon, called electrophosphorescence, allows OLEDs to be used in high-efficiency, full-color displays. But perhaps more importantly, it allows for the emergence of a new generation of interior illumination sources. By combining the light emissions of red, green, and blue electrophosphorescent OLEDs, we can generate light that the eye perceives to be white–and do it very efficiently.

Best light bulbs product

Best light bulbs product

Best light bulbs product

Current incandescent interior lighting, which has been in development for over 125 years, has an efficiency of approximately 15 lumens per watt. Electrophosphorescent white OLEDs have already demonstrated efficiencies of approximately 20 lumens per watt at levels bright enough for room illumination. We recently demonstrated in our labs that by combining phosphorescence and more conventional fluorescence, we can make a single OLED structure that produces nearly 30 lumens per watt, with the possibility of 50 to 60 lumens per watt in the near future. This device operates at lower voltage than a pure electro phosphorescent white OLED, resulting in improved efficiency.

Ann Arbor. He is also a professor in the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Physics, and Materials Science and Engineering.

Standing room

A new twist on an old favourite. Question: How many ministers/ blondes/psychiatrists (feel free to fill in the social stereotype of your choice) does it take to change an old-fashioned 100-watt light bulb? Answer: None.

From 1 September the joke will have become redundant due to the fact there won’t be any traditional light bulbs left to change.

The European Union has banned the sale of incandescent bulbs in order to slash energy bills and cut carbon dioxide emissions. This is an act which will force us all to become eco-warriers or, if we don’t comply, law-breakers. Under the European Directive, it triggered an unexpected frenzy of manic hoarding. So unless house owners have successfully stockpiled the old Osrams, they now have no alternative but to switch to a greener, fluorescent variety of bulb.




I have to confess I’m not a happy camper about being forced to enter the Twilight Zone and I can’t believe I’m alone in taking a dim view of this new edict.

Not only are these fluorescent and low-energy halogen bulbs aesthetically hideous; they also seem to operate with a constant flicker. They fail to do what they say they’ll do on the box–namely, allow one to see. This observation is not just a figment of my imagination. When my husband dutifully jumped the gun three months ago and replaced the old bulbs in our sitting-room with the new. For the first two days I thought we’d been invaded by an electrical poltergeist, or else Specsavers had issued me with a faulty prescription. It reminded me of a descriptive passage written by Homero Aridjis. ‘It was the gloaming, when a man cannot make out if the nebulous figure he glimpses in the shadows is angel or demon.’

Light Bulbs 1

Light Bulbs 1

Light Bulbs 1

My house was irrefutably gloomier. Cheerless. Even some avid tree-huggers will acknowledge that CFLs emanate a ‘different spectrum of light’ compared to incandescent bulbs. I also dispute the promise that they last up to 15 times longer than incandescent bulbs (ours certainly haven’t) due to the under-publicised fact that their intensity ‘can diminish by up to 70 per cent as they reach the later stages of their lifespan’.

I don’t look forward to squinting through the later stages of my own lifespan either. I’m all for saving the planet; but in order to do so effectively I need to preserve my sanity. I also need to be able to see the way forward. I need to lighten up.

I guess the EU has unwittingly awarded us one small consolation prize. The last person to leave the building won’t have to switch out the lights anymore. Big Brother will do it for them.

Rack ‘em up

The HoldUp doesn’t exclude any kind of bike; its ratcheting wheel-clamp design accommodates any wheel size as well as frames of all types.

Loading a bike takes seconds: Pull up the front-wheel hold-down bar, push the front-wheel tray down (the rear-wheel tray is stationary), place the bike on the rack, then ratchet the hold-down bar to secure the front wheel and fasten the rear strap to stabilize the back wheel. The durable tray mounts are wobble free, and the rack’s high-quality finish will endure any weather.

Yakima’s pin release lets you quickly and easily fold the HoldUp into itself, so pulling your long truck into a short garage is a snap.–Chris Cassidy

bike rack

bike rack

bike rack

$415 BUY IT IF You want a sturdy and compact hitch rack FORGET IT IF Hauling bikes behind you makes you nervous HITCH 1.25-or 2-inch BIKE CAPACITY 2; upgradable to 4 bikes w/ HoldUp Plus 2 add-on ($285; available for 2-inch only) FEATURES Bottle opener; cable lock (locks bikes to hitch pin using standard, included Yakima lock core); spring-loaded pull pin INFO yakima.com

Saris T-Bones $380

It was sometime in the 1990s when multitasking became a household term, yet most racks still accomplish only a single job. Saris decided they should do more, and thus the T-Bones. The rack connects to a bumper hitch to hold either two or three bikes on your car using Saris’s rock-solid system of straps and adjustable support arms. But the rack also detaches from the car with a quick-release-type lever (the two-bike model weighs just 10 pounds) and clicks into a base that you can set up in your apartment or garage–and just like that, the T-Bones morphs into a bike stand. Saris also throws in a backpack-type bag for carrying the rack, creating a clever.

bike rack products

bike rack products

bike rack products

$380 BUY IT IF You live in a small dwelling where space is at a premium FORGET IT IF Your home has plenty of storage HITCH 1.25-or 2-inch BIKE CAPACITY 2 bikes, 70 pounds (upgradable to 3 bikes and 105 pounds FEATURES Integrated lock; adjustable arms using spline system; converts to bike stand; backpack-type transport bag that also holds helmet and shoes INFO saris.com

Kuat NV $499

The aluminum hitch-mounted NV installs easily with no tools–I had help positioning it, but a stronger person could do it solo. Racking a bike is even easier: Place the front wheel in the cradle, snug the hold-arm down near the fork and secure the rear-wheel ratchet strap. A large quick-release lets the NV’s hauling platform fold up vertically when not in use, and it flips down to allow access to the rear of your vehicle. A built-in cable threads through the rear triangles of the bikes, both for anti-theft purposes and for peace of mind, and there’s also a built-in workstand, a boon for the constant tinkerer or mechanical-prone. If you haul a bike with 20-or 24-inch wheels, you’ll need to use the included adaptors.–Christine Bucher

$495 BUY IT IF You like easy-to-use, good-looking gear FORGET IT IF You’ve had frequent rear-end accidents, mostly your own fault HITCH 1.25-or 2-inch BIKE CAPACITY 2 bikes with wheels up to 29 inches; 4 bikes with optional extender (2-inch only); 120-pound maximum load FEATURES Built-in lock; foldable; built-in workstand; lifetime warranty INFO kuatinnovations.com

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